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What aluminum is used to make train
The lightening of railway vehicles, especially the lightening of high-speed and double deck passenger cars and subway trains, is the central issue of the modernization of railway transportation, and the most effective way to improve the lightening of vehicles is to use a large number of aluminum alloy materials. Therefore, how to improve the degree of vehicle Aluminization has become a very important task for vehicle design, manufacturing experts and material experts.
As early as 1986, the French National Railway Corporation first used aluminum alloy materials on the window frames of railway passenger cars. In 1905, the United Kingdom also used aluminum alloy to make the outer wall panels and interior decoration materials of railway electric cars. Since 1905, the United States has used aluminum alloy to make doors and windows, roofs, outer wall panels, inner wall pipes, bogies, wheel cores and decorative materials of electric cars and passenger cars on a large scale. Since then, it has rapidly expanded to Italy, Germany, Switzerland Canada and other countries.
In 1962, Japan's Shanyang electric railway first adopted the all aluminum structure car, which has become the focus of attention of all countries in the world. The manufacturing technology of aluminum alloy railway vehicles in Japan has developed rapidly. At present, the vehicles made of aluminum alloy have been used in 54 vehicle types of 19 operating units such as national railway, private railway, Shinkansen railway and subway. The assembly method of all aluminum vehicles is changed from the traditional process of coating thin plates on the skeleton to a new method of assembling large-scale extruded parts with the skeleton outer plates.
With the rapid development of the national economy and the continuous improvement of the level of science and technology, more and more urgent requirements are put forward for the lightweight of railway transportation, which greatly promotes the process of all aluminum of rail vehicles and high-speed double deck passenger cars. In recent years, especially since the deepening of reform and opening up,
In addition to introducing advanced design and manufacturing technologies of all aluminum structure vehicles and light aluminum alloy metro vehicles from abroad, China is organizing colleges and universities, scientific research institutes and factories to develop high-speed passenger cars, double deck passenger cars and metro vehicles, and has made significant achievements. It can be expected that with the development of China's transportation industry, especially the development of high-speed railway, double-layer railway vehicles and subway transportation, a broad road will be opened for the development and application of aluminum in the transportation industry.
Specific application of aluminum alloy in car body structure: the first batch production of aluminum structure vehicles was the London Metro tram in 1952. In 1962, the 2000 aluminum tram of Shanyang electric railway appeared in Japan. Since then, Shanyang electric railway, state railway and private railway all competed to use aluminum alloy vehicles. By the 1980s, there were 40 kinds of aluminum structure vehicles in Japan, with more than 4000 vehicles. At present, there are more than 5000 aluminum structure vehicles in the world. These vehicles make full use of the original characteristics of aluminum alloy: light weight, high strength, good processability, weldability, corrosion resistance, beautiful appearance, etc. while the basic size, shape and manufacturing method are all in accordance with the traditional steel structure vehicles. The main disadvantage of this aluminum structure vehicle is that the rigidity decreases in proportion to the weight reduction.
In order to adapt to the high-speed railway, reduce the pressure change in the tunnel and prevent the vibration of the passenger center, the fixed structure vehicle, i.e. the aluminum alloy structure body of Japanese Shinkansen 2000, is developed. Compared with the traditional vehicle, its size is almost similar, but its configuration is completely different. Taking advantage of the characteristics of high specific strength and good processability of aluminum alloy, the structural members are arranged at the upper and lower ends of the side structure to maintain the same rigidity and reduce its weight.
The development of aluminum alloy materials and large extruded profiles paves the way for the structural modernization and light-weight of railway vehicles, and the structural modernization and light-weight of railway vehicles raise new issues and increase power for the development and application of aluminum materials. In terms of materials, railway vehicles have high requirements on mechanical properties, processing formability, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance and welding performance. Therefore, according to different components, different uses and different parts, 5000 Series (such as 5005, 5052, 5083, etc.), 6000 Series (such as 6061, 6n01, 6005A, 6082, 6063, etc.) and 7000 series (such as 7N01, 7003, 7005, etc.) alloys shall be selected.
From 1950s to 1960s, railway vehicles were usually assembled and welded with 5083 alloy outer panel, skeleton and 7N01 platform. However, in recent years, due to the requirements of large-scale (double-layer), high-speed, lightweight standardization and simplified construction and maintenance of railway vehicles, as well as the successful development of large-scale integral wall panels and hollow complex thin-walled profiles, the application of large-scale extruded profiles on railway vehicles has been promoted. The complex thin-walled profiles used in large-scale integral wall panels and hollow sections of railway vehicles are produced on the above large-scale extruders. This large extruder, equipped with flat extrusion cylinders, can produce porous complex thin-walled hollow profiles with width of 600mm, height of 60mm, thickness of 3mm and length of more than 20mm.
These large-scale integral precision extruded profiles are assembled by resistance spot welding and inert gas shielded arc welding, thus greatly saving labor hours and reducing weight. Moreover, the overall stiffness, local stiffness and fatigue strength of welded parts are equivalent to those of steel structures.
Therefore, this ideal aluminum structural material creates favorable conditions for the modernization of railway vehicles
Application of aluminum materials in other parts other than car body
In 1975, Japan used large-scale extruded profiles to make the support beams of the car body and platform Workshop on the 200 type Shinkansen vehicles. It makes remarkable achievements in the light weight of trolley parts.
Aluminum alloy wheels are applied to the wheel center plate of the railway vehicles along the coast of fulangsi Bay in the United States, which greatly reduces the vehicle weight. In other applications, there are aluminum alloy bearing boxes, gear boxes, frame axle frames and connecting rods between the car body and the trolley. Due to the light weight, the weight of each bearing box is reduced from 73kg to 28KG. In addition, on mlu001 and mlu002 magnetic pad type railway vehicles, the outer panel is made of hard aluminum, the rear frame is made of 7N01 aluminum, the outer slot of superconducting electromagnetism is also made of structural aluminum alloy 5083 and low resistance 1100 alloy, and the electric gas coils for magnetic pads and guide propulsion are all made of aluminum alloy, The heat exchanger of helium liquefying freezer, which plays an important role in superconductivity, is made of porous aluminum alloy hollow wall panels.
There are many kinds of aluminum alloy parts used in the vehicle, and the total weight is considerable. Such as 471kg of interior decoration parts, 153kg of decorative plates, 334kg of doors and windows, 153kg of interior equipment parts, 190kg of ventilation ducts and dampers, and 254KG of control devices.